Nachweismethoden und Verbreitung von Pektinolyse beiBacillus-Arten. Over retting results in dazed weak fiber. quality, quantity, nature and temperature of water during retting, presence of micro-organisms etc. Bidirectional Jute fiber mats of thickness 0.4 mm are purchased from Chandra Prakash & Co. Jaipur, India. introduced radiofrequency treatment to improve retting efficiency in a variety of water-retting temperatures and durations. It is a controlled microbial decomposition of pectin without simultaneous decomposition of fibres. Number of times cited according to CrossRef: 13. The retting activity reported in this paper is much more marked than that by previous workers. 1 at 110 days of growth was dry and free of mildew. The finest fibre was obtained after 96 hours of osmotic retting with 40°C working temperature. Identification of Micrococcus sp. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. Required fields are marked *, How many types of cultivated species of jute, Leaf is bitter in taste of white jute is  due to. plant retting of jute and mesta has certain demerits. Only one new species, Micrococcus corchorus, and one new variety, Micrococcus leteus var. Number of times cited according to CrossRef: Genome Comparison Identifies Different Bacillus Species in a Bast Fibre-Retting Bacterial Consortium and Provides Insights into Pectin Degrading Genes. Jute Crop All Important For this purpose, stems of fibre yielding plants are immersed in water for a long period where decomposition sets in. New Agriculture Vacancies • The strength of fibre is very poor. Jute bast was provided by the Zhangzhou Jute/Kenaf Test Station of the National Agricultural Industrial Technology System. • The fibre is black in colour with poor lusture. Kenaf and jute can be categorized as one family known as Malvaceae (Banik et al., 1993). Whole stem retting was incorporated in the study to broaden the base of comparison. Retting time must be carefully judged;… Strains within each species usually differ in their capacity to ret jute. On the 3rd day, the bubbling increased and blisters were formed on the bark of the jute stem. Online Agriculture Test Series, Previous Year Question Paper High temperature of water quickens the process of retting. Agriculture Field Officer(IBPS-AFO). The optimum temperature is around 34° C, ditches, tanks, beels­haor or in vast water are also used for retting. 1). Ditches, tanks and pools are also used for retting. Fiber characteristics … For this purpose, stems of fibre yielding plants are immersed in water for long period where decomposition sets in. Jute is an eco-friendly and bio-degradable natural product with no adverse effect on the environment. Among the storage temperatures, jute leaves sealed in polyethylene bags can be stored longer at 8 °C. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Jute Crop All Important One Liner Questions, Your email address will not be published. 30: Rib boning process is related to: Jute: 31: Beat- Break-jerk method used for: Fiber extraction: 32: National Institute for Research on Jute and Allied Fiber Technology is situated at : Kolkata The stalk bundles are weighted down, usually with stones or wood, for about 8 to 14 days, depending upon water temperature and mineral content. Onthe 2nd day, slight bubbling occurred in the water of the tube. The water samples were Bundles of jute stems are kept in water for about 2 to 3 weeks for retting. A detailed description of the process of jute retting is given. Retting of jute is done because while retting the tight stalk of bundles, are taken to the ponds or tanks so that the fibres gets separated from the wooden part. Good retting: 29: Optimum temperature required for retting is about: 34 °C. Jute retting process is one of the important responsible factors for quality of jute fiber. On the contrary, Ruan et al. Active retting strains have been found to lose their retting activity, and it has been concluded that this loss may follow either from loss of adaptive enzymes or from mutations. Jute requires a warm and humid climate with temperature between 24° C to 37° C. Constant rain or water-logging is harmful. Working off-campus? Learn about our remote access options, Department of Botany, University of Dacca, Pakistan. cereus, one strain ofB. • The pond can be used for fish cum paddy culture after retting. Raw material. viii. (2008), they reported that to ret the 10,000kg of jute, almost 432m3of water is used. and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. Incomplete submergence produces croppy fiber of extremely low value. 3500 to 4000) will be eliminated in this method. The retting behavior was as follows. retting in jute and sunnhemp 1. polymyxa, five strains ofB. Nachweismethoden und Verbreitung von Pektinolyse bei Bacillus‐Arten. Natural water retting employs stagnant or slow-moving waters, such as ponds, bogs, and slow streams and rivers. In February 1955, at a room temperature of 35 to 37 C, the bacterium was found to ret jute completely in 9 days. The mieroflora involved in jute retting was investigated in three districts of East Pakistan for fifteen months. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, luteus were isolated and their action on jute stems studied. A detailed description of the process of jute retting is given. Retting of jute is a kind of fermentation process in which the cortical and phloem tissues of the bark of the plants containing free strands are decomposed to separate fibre from non-fibrous woody stem (Asaduzzaman and Abdullah, 1998, Bose, 1969; Ray and Mandal, 1967).The fermentative microorganisms consume the cementing materials viz., the pectins, hemicelluloses and … Jute – ICARE a programme initiated by NJB in association with CRIJAF & JCI with an aims at mechanization in jute farming in a farmer-friendly way and accelerated retting using microbial consortium for improved income for jute farmers. River basins or alluvial or loamy soils are best for jute cultivation. Tank retting, by contrast, employs vats usually made of concrete, requires about four to six days, and is feasible in any season. 1. No changewasseen on the stem one dayafter inoculation. are the controlling factors of jute retting. Flow ever jute is grown widely in sandy loams and clay loams. • Transport cost of harvested jute bundles to the retting spot under conventional method (35 to 40 man days/ha, amounting Rs. washed, air dried, and combed. For conventional retting, jute ribbons as well as stems were immersed in water at a jutediquor ratio of 1:20, temperature was approximately 30. ix. Review of Some Factors Influencing Jute Fiber Quality. vii. Bacteria capable of retting jute are present in pond water, in the soil of jute fields, and on the surface of jute plants. The new gray alluvial soil of good depth, receiving salt from annual floods, is best for jute. Temperatures ranging to more than 25 °C and relative humidity of 70%–90% are favorable for successful cultivation. Natural water retting = A type of water retting. New questions in Environmental Sciences +27710971100 SSD CHEMICAL FOR CLEAN BLACK MONEY IN GAUTENG, LIMPOPO, MPUMALANGA, NORTH WEST, SSD Chemical Solution used to clean all type of black mo … ney, tainted and defaced … Again, efficiency of any particular method of retting depends upon the effect of different environmental factors. Dew retting, which is common in areas having limited water resources, is most effective in climates with heavy nighttime dews and warm daytime temperatures. After the requisite period, the stems and ribbons were washed to extract the fibres. Retting is a controlled microbial decomposition of pectin without simultaneous decomposition of fibres. In India  which state has first position both in area and production, Planting time of white jute _________in low and mid lands, Planting time of yellow to red jute _________in mid and uplands, JRC-321 (Sonali), JRC-212 (Sabuj sona), JRC7447 (Shyamli) are the variety of, Optimum temperature required for retting is about, National Institute for Research on Jute and Allied Fiber Technology is situated at, It is a microbial process in which aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and fungi loosen the fiber by decomposing & dissolving the pectin, hemi- cellulose and other cementing agents, Small pod stage /initiation of pod formation. Based on the evaluations conducted on the quality, nutritional and chemical components of this leafy vegetable, the maximum storage life of jute at this temperature was 8 days. Jute cultivation in red soils may require high dose of manure and pH range between 4.8 and 5.8 is best for its cultivation. The end point of retting is determined by inspecting few stems, each day from tenth day … Further observations on the bacteriology of jute retting, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2672.1963.tb04761.x. Most of the defects in fiber are due to faulty retting. After retting, the bark is peeled off from the plant and the fibre is removed. They were air dried … In this procedure, the harvested plant stalks are spread evenly in grassy fields, where the combined action of bacteria, sun, air, and dew produces fermentation, dissolving much of the stem material surrounding the fibre bundles. They probably enter stems over the whole surface through stomata, as well as through cut ends and leaf scars, after immersion for retting. Among the aerobes and facultative anaerobes, B. subtilis has been found to be the most common and B. macerans, B. polymyxa, Micrococcus corchorus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa the most active retting agents in East Pakistan. retting, three days, was achieved with Bacillus polymyxa at a temperature of 400. NABARD Norms Solar Photo Voltaic Pumping System. liquefaciens, are reported; these will be described elsewhere. Summary: A total of 1,438 colonies of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria has been isolated from samples of retted jute stems collected from 12 districts of East Pakistan. Enter your email address below and we will send you your username, If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username, By continuing to browse this site, you agree to its use of cookies as described in our, I have read and accept the Wiley Online Library Terms and Conditions of Use. Your email address will not be published. Raw material for packaging industries. megatherium, one strain ofMicrococcus caseolyticus and one strain ofM. This fibre retting method claimed to be more suitable for fibre reinforcement applications . Retting process is used for obtaining fibres from stems of flax, hemp, jute etc. Learn more. [1] Tank retting. Later these are covered with water­hyacinth, rice straws or any kind of aquatic weeds etc. Introduction. According to Mondal et al. Another type of water retting. E-glass fibers in woven mat form of 280 gsm are supplied by Suntech Fiber Private Limited, Bangalore. Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology. Retting in a tank was appreciably hastened by using the same water for successive batches of jute. This employs stagnant or slow-moving waters, such as ponds, bogs, and slow streams and rivers. The water, penetrating to the central stalk portion, swells the inner cells, bursting the outermost layer, thus increasing absorption of both moisture and decay-producing bacteria. Prolonged immersion involves the risk of over-retting, probably because of the action of … Under laboratory conditions the shortest period of retting, three days, was achieved withBacillus polymyxa at a temperature of 40°. Epoxy LY556 and Hardner is Aradur HY951 are supplied by Chemicote Engineers., Bangalore, India. 110 days of growth was dry and free of mildew by Chemicote Engineers., Bangalore India... Time must be carefully judged ; … Raw material jute is grown widely sandy! Hours of osmotic retting with 40°C working temperature by the Zhangzhou Jute/Kenaf Test Station of the National Industrial... Is much more marked than that by Previous workers occurred in the study to broaden the of. Is one of the jute stem or any kind of aquatic weeds etc hemp, jute leaves in... 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